Institute of Mountain Physiology and Medicine of NAS KR
Institute of Mountain Physiology and Medicine (until 1967 – Institute of Regional Medicine, from 1967 to 2005. Institute of Physiology and Experimental Pathology of High Mountains, from 2006 to 2017 Institute of Mountain Physiology) was established in 1954 on the initiative of the first President of the Academy of Sciences, Academician I.K. Akhunbaev. On the basis of the Order of the National Academy of Sciences of the Kyrgyz Republic dated December 06, 2016 No. 01-75 “On the reorganization of research institutions” with the changes of September 26, 17, No. 01-66, Institute of Mountain Physiology and Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences (certificate of state registration legal entity 17468-3301-У dated July 20, 2017, the GPU series No. 0026469) by joining the Institute of Mountain Physiology of the Institute of Medical Problems of the Southern Division of the National Academy of Sciences of the Kyrgyz Republic.
The mission of the Institute is to create a system of health protection and social measures to protect the population living and working in the highlands, developing methods and ways to improve the sustainability and human performance in the mountains, professional selection, promotion and implementation of the idea of sustainable development of mountain areas
The main directions of scientific activity:
- Neurophysiological, immunophysiological and psycho-physiological mechanisms of human adaptation to the conditions of high mountains;
- development of methods and methods for optimizing the functional state and health of the human body in the mountains and unfavorable living conditions;
- ecophysiological and social aspects of sustainable development of mountainous regions of the Republic
Prominent scientists of Kyrgyzstan — Academician I.K. Akhunbayev, Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences of the Kigriz SSR, G.L. Frenkel, Professor M.A.Aliev, E.I.Bakin, and F.I. Himmeric played a huge role in the development of the Institute.
In the years 50-60, the Institute carried out research on endemic goiter, echinococcosis and experimental cardiac electrophysiology, on the influence of the middle and high mountains on a healthy and diseased organism.
In the 1970s-1980s, Professor V.A.Isabayeva and the country’s largest ecophysiologist, Professor A.D. Slonim, gave a new impetus to the study of the physiological mechanisms of complex forms of natural adaptation, and the influence of the main natural factors of the region on the body: environmental temperature, hypoxia, and water deficiency. The features of the main parameters of blood circulation, blood, respiration, metabolism, immune system, characterizing the overall picture of the adaptation of humans and animals in the mountains, have been established.
In 1988-1993 Neurophysiological studies are being developed for the first time in the republic. Professor S.I. Soroko and his students create a unique laboratory for assessing the functional state of the brain and its topographical features. The methods of brain mapping and bio adaptive control allowed us to isolate EEG markers and carry out computer diagnostics of the individual sensitivity of a person to hypoxia.
In the 90s. The problem of the physiological and social adaptation of a person in extreme mountain conditions, the assessment of the severity and intensity of work, the development of optimal work regimes for highly effective methods of forecasting and selection, scientific substantiation of socio-economic compensation for work in adverse conditions of mountains (head doctor of medical sciences, prof. A.S. Shanazarov). Developed scientifically-based methodological approaches to the calculation of coefficients of wage supplements for high mountains, inaccessibility, remoteness, uninhabited and calculated for all mountain settlements of the Republic corresponding coefficients of surcharges taking into account the climatic and socio-economic conditions, which was the fundamental basis of the Law ” On state guarantees and compensation for persons living and working in high altitude conditions. ”
From 2000 to the present: typological EEG standards of mountaineers have been developed for the prognostic evaluation of the functional state of the central nervous system and the improvement of methods for the selection of specialists for work in high mountains. A system of EEG certification of mountain residents of the Kyrgyz Republic has been developed, which allows to evaluate a set of interrelated EEG parameters characterizing the functional state of the central nervous system of the Highlanders. It has been established that as a result of chronic exposure of the ecological and climatic factors of mountains in the highlanders, there is a decrease in the resistance and plasticity of the central nervous system (CNS), which is expressed by an increase in the frequency and severity of functional disorders of the CNS and an increase among highlanders of people with low brain adaptability (head doctor of medical sciences, prof. G.S. Dzhunusova).
The state of immunity, lipid peroxidation and selenium concentration in residents of mountainous regions was studied. An increase in the blood content of the inhabitants of these zones of toxic products of primary and secondary oxidation of lipids negatively acting on the cell membranes is shown. At the same time, the production of antioxidant protection components is inhibited. As a result, the inhabitants of the mountains observed a weakening of the immune system and various manifestations of immunopathological processes. A database has been created that includes regulatory immunity indicators and immunogenetic markers of the HLA system, which allows for prenosological diagnostics of the immune status and recommendations for correcting immunodeficiency states (head doctor of biological sciences prof. K.A.Soburov).
Based on the integrated methodology of multi-level indicators, the sustainability of development of the regions of the Kyrgyz Republic is assessed. The demographic forecast of future trends of population aging in Kyrgyzstan as a whole and in the context of its regions is calculated. Predictive estimates of population changes are made for three age groups of the population (0-14 years, 15-59 years and 60 years and older), total fertility rate, life expectancy for men and women until 2025 (head G.I.Ibraimova Ph.D).
The Institute develops information technologies for the educational process, publishes virtual educational materials for teaching in an interactive form to modern methods of processing biomedical information. A virtual learning environment has been created that allows the doctor to master the basics of evidence-based medicine and the basic principles of processing biomedical information. The training environment for evidence-based medicine has been introduced into the system of institutions of the Ministry of Health of the Kyrgyz Republic, which leads to a more rational use of health care resources (head A. A. Sorokin, Ph.D.).
Evaluation of the incidence of hepatitis in children and adolescent Osh region showed that in the structure of chronic hepatitis the main share was made up of viral hepatitis B and C (32.2%) and viral hepatitis of unspecified etiology (24%). Monitoring of anthrax foci in the south of Kyrgyzstan has been completed and unfavorable zones have been established for the concentration of anthrax foci in the Osh region. Isolated from local strains of bifidobacteria and lactic acid bacteria, a method has been developed for use in diseases and prevention of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (head R.M.Toychuev, Ph.D.).
Currently in the structure of the Institute of Mountain Physiology and Medicine: Laboratory of Neurophysiology; laboratory of physiology of the immune system; laboratory of labor physiology and psychology of activity; Center for Innovative Learning and Knowledge Transfer; Department of Medical Problems: Laboratory of Ecology and Microbiology, Laboratory of Pharmacology, Toxicology, Radiology and Morphology, Clinical Laboratory.
Today, the Institute of Mountain Physiology and Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences of the Kyrgyz Republic on the project “Assessment of the Impacts of Ecological and Climatic Factors of Mountains on the Quality of Life of the Population and the Resource Potential of Local Communities in the Conditions of Their Life Activities” (head MD G.S. Dzhunusova.): 1) a comprehensive assessment of the health of the population in the high mountain regions of the Kyrgyz Republic, including the neurophysiological status of mountaineers psychophysiological and immunophysiological features, as well as knowledge transfer to universities of the Kyrgyz Republic; 2) health assessment and prevention of diseases of the population of the southern regions of the Kyrgyz Republic living in unfavorable areas.
Main results for 2018 year.
- In order to create information bases and “regional health passports”, for the first time, monitoring studies were carried out to assess the population health of the Issyk-Kul oblast (Dzhety-Oguz district, Saruu village, 1,700 m above sea level and Ton district, Korgondu-Bulak village – 2800 m above sea level). Neurodynamic parameters of the central nervous system were studied, the types of central mechanisms of brain regulation (CMR) according to EEG were established. So, 10% are assigned to type I, 9% – to type II, 81% – to type III of central mechanisms of brain regulation. An analysis of the stability of EEG parameters showed that the stability margin of the brain self-regulation mechanisms is greatest in persons with type I , and the least in those with type III of CMR of brain. At the same time, 46% of the examined teenage mountaineers showed signs of disorganization of the alpha rhythm (against the background of theta and beta rhythms and polymorphic activity), where a high percentage of shifts (27%) is noted in type III of the brain, which indicates that desynchronization, being an objective sign of maladaptation, expresses the body’s inability to fully adapt to environmental factors.
- The reaction of the immune system of the mountaineers living in high mountains (Taldy-Suu village, Alai district, Osh region, 3200 m. Above sea level) was investigated. A decrease in the number of T-lymphocytes, indicating a low level of functioning of the T-immunity unit, has been established. In the mountains, redistribution of lymphocytes occurs due to an increase in the level of cortisol in the peripheral blood. Also, there is a decrease in the ability of monocytes to stick together and spreading, which together leads to a decrease in nonspecific resistance of the body of the Highlanders.
- When assessing heart rate variability for orthostatic effects, it was found that, depending on the type of regulation, the response of the respiratory (HF), vasomotor (LF) and ergotropic suprasegmental (VLF) centers is different. The inhabitants of the highlands with a moderate predominance of the autonomous control loop (type III – 32%) retain the optimum level of vegetative balance and have sufficient stability and adaptive capabilities. Persons with type I – 34% (moderate predominance of the central control loop) activities in the highlands are carried out with stress regulation mechanisms, while persons of the type II (11%) are prone to develop maladaptive states; for residents of mountains with type IV (23%), the autonomic response to stress indicates a chronic overstrain of the body, which may be pathological.
- Developed and proposed systems of indicators and indicators of social, environmental and economic sustainability of the development of mountain regions, which can be used in developing measures related to making adjustments in decision-making and implementation of regional socio-economic objectives. At this stage, those close to sustainable development reached Batken (0.44 units), Issyk-Kul (0.51), Talas (0.44) and Chui (0.39) oblasts, and for Naryn (0.37 ) and Osh (0.39) regions characterized by unstable development.
- The qualitative peculiarity of subjective satisfaction with the vital needs of the population, expressing the environmental resources of various mountain regions by the example of the Alay district of the Osh region (Gulcha village and Sary-Tash village) in comparison with Issyk-Kul and Naryn regions, is determined. The data obtained demonstrated a greater measure of satisfaction of the analyzed needs in Gulcha compared with Sary-Tash; when comparing data obtained in the southern region with the results of the previously considered areas (Issyk-Kul, Naryn regions) The following sequence was established: from most complete to least complete satisfaction – Tyup → At-Bashi → Gulcha → Sary-Tash.
- In order to identify the peculiarities of the state of health of the population, depending on the adverse environmental conditions, the population of Mailuu-Suu, Shekaftar and village Aidarken, who live in the particularly polluted biogeochemical zones of the southern region. A high population disability was established in the town Mailuu-Suu, then in the village Shekaftar, and in the village Aidarken. The main cause of disability is the use of water contaminated with radionuclides.
- The ongoing monitoring of the incidence and carriage of typhoid fever has established the main waterway of infection and the spread of abdominal typhoid fever stics not only for Kyrgyzstan, but also for the countries of Central Asia.
Address: 720048, Bishkek, Ankara St. (formerly M.Gorky) 1/5
tel. (312) 44-95-64, 44-92-16; 44-90-05;